The Central Building was built from 1937 to 1940 by the Japanese colonial government. Its style differs from the late-Renaissance style seen in the Control Yuan building (1915, originally Taipei Prefecture Hall), Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau building (1922, originally Taiwan Provincial Monopoly Bureau building), Office of the President (1919, originally Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan), and the original building of National Taiwan University Hospital (1916).
Rather than a triangular pediment, a round dome or a tall steeple, the building is topped with a flat roof. This shows a strong influence from the modernist movement that was popular during the peak of Japanese expansion when the structure was constructed (1937). The exterior puts a strong emphasis on clean blocks and horizontal lines, the same style used for Taipei Zhongshan Hall (1936, originally Taipei City Public Auditorium).
Though the Central Building has the appearance of a three-story structure, it actually has four stories rising 16.5 meters total. According to construction records, the floor space of the first to fourth floors measure 3,709 square meters, 3,461 square meters, 3,200 square meters and 774 square meters, respectively. It was constructed from 1937 to 1940 originally to accommodate the Taipei Municipal Office. Well preserved and still in use, this is a fine example of a government building from the Japanese colonial period.